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author = {Newman, Maxwell Herman Alexander },
title = {General principles of the design of all-purpose computing machines},
journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences},
volume = {195},
number = {1042},
pages = {271-274},
year = {1948},
doi = {10.1098/rspa.1948.0129},
URL = {},
eprint = {}
abstract = { Professor Hartree in his paper has recalled that all the essential ideas of the general-purpose calculating machines now being made are to be found in Babbages plans for his analytical engine. In modern times the idea of a universal calculating machine was independently introduced by Turing (1938) in connexion with a logical problem, which there is unfortunately no time to mention, and the construction of actual machines was begun independently in America, towards the end of the late war. A universal machine is one which, when given suitable instructions, will carry out automatically any well-defined series of computations of certain specified kinds, say additions, subtractions, multiplications and divisions of integers or finite decimals. This is a rather doubtful definition, since it depends on what is meant by a welldefined series of computations; and undoubtedly the best definition of this is one that can be done by a machine . However, this description is not quite so circular as it may seem; for most people have a fairly clear idea of w hat processes can be done by machines specially constructed for each separate purpose. There are, for example, machines for solving sets of linear algebraic equations, for finding the prim e factors of large integers, for solving ordinary differential equations of certain types, and so on. A universal machine is a single machine which, when provided with suitable instructions, will perform any calculation that could be done by a specially constructed machine. No real machine can be truly universal because its size is limited—for example, no machine will work out π to lO1000 places of decimals, because there is no room in the world for the working or the answer; but subject to this limitation of size, the machines now being made in America and in this country will be universal —if they work a t all; that is, they will do every kind of job that can be done by special machines. }
author = {Hartree, Douglas Rayner },
title = {A historical survey of digital computing machines},
journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences},
volume = {195},
number = {1042},
pages = {265-271},
year = {1948},
doi = {10.1098/rspa.1948.0118},
URL = {},
eprint = {}
abstract = { In opening the discussion Professor M. H. A. Newman said that it would be confined to machines which are automatic, i. e. require no human intervention at any stage; digital, i. e. such that separate digits of each number are stored in the machine at every stage (in contrast to 'analogue machines such as the Differential Analyzer where the numbers are represented by directly measured physical quantities, e. g. lengths); and general-purpose machines, i. e. machines able without modification to carry out any of a wide variety of computing jobs. }
author = {Turing, A. M.},
title = {On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem},
journal = {Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society},
volume = {s2-42},
number = {1},
pages = {230-265},
doi = {10.1112/plms/s2-42.1.230},
url = {},
eprint = {},
year = {1937}
author = {Wilkes, Maurice Vincent },
title = {The design of a practical high-speed computing machine. The EDSAC},
journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences},
volume = {195},
number = {1042},
pages = {274-279},
year = {1948},
doi = {10.1098/rspa.1948.0130},
URL = {},
eprint = {}
abstract = { I would like to give a description of the high-speed electronic digital calculating machine now in an advanced stage of construction in the University Mathematical Laboratory, Cambridge, and known as the EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator). Before doing this I will set forth some of the considerations underlying its design. It will be realized that the potential power of electronic digital computing machines is very great, and that they are likely to have a far-reaching effect on certain fields of scientific research. It is, for example, often possible to write down the mathematical equations governing a situation but not possible to treat them analytically. If any progress is to be made in these cases it must be by a direct numerical attack on the fundamental equations. There have in recent years been a number of examples of this method. I might mention Professor Hartrees work on self-consistent fields and Professor Southwells relaxation methods. In both cases the equations expressing the physical laws appropriate to the problem are written down and an approximate numerical solution sought without any intervening analysis of the conventional type. This kind of method is in principle of wide application and power, and the reason why it has not been more generally applied is that the labour of carrying out the necessary numerical processes is too great }
author="Ajanovic, Jasmin",
editor="Padua, David",
title="PCI Express",
bookTitle="Encyclopedia of Parallel Computing",
publisher="Springer US",
address="Boston, MA",
organization = "ARM Limited",
title = "AMBA AXI and ACE Protocol Specification AXI3, AXI4, and AXI4-Lite, ACE and ACE-Lite",
year = 2011,
url =""
abstract = {The computing world today is in the middle of a revolution: mobile clients and cloud computing have emerged as the dominant paradigms driving programming and hardware innovation today. The Fifth Edition of Computer Architecture focuses on this dramatic shift, exploring the ways in which software and technology in the 'cloud' are accessed by cell phones, tablets, laptops, and other mobile computing devices. Each chapter includes two real-world examples, one mobile and one datacenter, to illustrate this revolutionary change.},
added-at = {2016-11-04T19:12:58.000+0100},
address = {Amsterdam},
author = {Hennessy, John L. and Patterson, David A.},
biburl = {},
edition = 5,
file = {ACM Learning Center eBook:2012/HennessyPatterson12.pdf:PDF;Amazon Search inside:http\://},
groups = {public},
interhash = {83342075ee6946a3cd5ffa87f2337a87},
intrahash = {d2d024a4ec1fd887aa36482288ca38f9},
isbn = {978-0-12-383872-8},
keywords = {01624 103 book acm elsevier computer architecture mobile device cloud intro},
publisher = {Morgan Kaufmann},
timestamp = {2017-07-13T18:01:10.000+0200},
title = {Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach},
username = {flint63},
year = 2012